These are chemical elements which, as a result of the constant melting of the Earth's mantle, accumulate in the Earth's crust, which is Earth's outermost solid layer. The researchers conclude that, over Earth's history, a larger amount of Earth's mantle has melted -- and ultimately formed the Earth's crust -- than previously thought. Andreas Stracke, who is heading the study. As the material below the Azores rises from very deep within Earth's mantle -- and is unexpectedly similar to most of its upper part -- the composition of Earth's entire mantle may differ from current thinking.
In their study, the geochemists examined the mineral olivine and its melt inclusions, i. The researchers isolated these melt inclusions, just a few micrometers in size, dissolved them chemically and separated certain chemical elements. These elements are altered by radioactive decay during their lifetime and ascent from Earth's interior -- travelling over thousands of kilometres for hundreds or even thousands of millions of years. The researchers analysed the isotopic composition of the melts with highly sensitive mass spectrometers. Such methods allow measurement of the relative abundance of different atoms in an element -- so-called isotopes.
In this way, the researchers indirectly obtained information on the composition of the material in the Earth's mantle: the isotope analyses showed that it contains far fewer rare Earth elements such as samarium and neodymium, but also of chemically similar elements such as thorium and uranium. Email Address. Forgot Password? Remember Me. I am a New Customer — Create an Account.
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From Yao to Mao: 5000 Years of Chinese History
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Create Account. Course No. Professor Kenneth J. Share This Course. Choose a Format. Streaming Included Free. Audio version now exclusively on Audible. Get the audio course. It had seen the rule of three classical dynasties before B. It developed agriculture and writing independently of outside influence. While the Roman Empire was at its zenith, China's Han dynasty ruled over an empire superior in almost every measurable way, including technological advancement. You learn about: The powerful dynasties that ruled China for centuries The philosophical and religious foundations—particularly Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism—that have influenced every iteration of Chinese thought The larger-than-life personalities, from both inside and outside its borders, of those who have shaped China's history.
As you listen to these lectures, you see how China's politics, economics, and art reflect the forces of its past. In guiding you through the five millennia of China's history, he has organized his lectures around several major themes: The evolution of the social and political elite and how they acquired and asserted their power as rulers The history of political thought and the ways the Chinese have organized their society and government from the shamanistic roots of that political thought to the crafting and adapting of the Imperial Order, the rise of Communism, and the introduction of capitalism as China seeks economic growth How the Chinese have thought and written about themselves and the world The connections between economic and social life and the worlds of art, literature, and philosophy The interaction among cosmological ideas, the metaphysical insights of Buddhism and religious Daoism, and the perennial mysticism of popular religion China's history as it relates to the world beyond its borders.
China: A Major Player China continues to reassert itself as a major force.
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Hide Full Description. Average 30 minutes each. The course begins with a look at the physical environment of East Asia, the specific sites from which China emerged, and the prehistoric background of Chinese culture. The bronze industry developed by the Xia dynasty is raised to even greater heights by the Shang, becoming—along with military forces and the royal ritual cult—one of the defining features of early Chinese society. The Zhou people lead a coalition that overthrows the Shang and found a new dynasty justified by the "Mandate of Heaven," elaborating critical concepts for China's political culture over the next 3, years.
The crises of what came to be known as the "Warring States" period lead many Chinese to question the basic foundations of their society, and to search for answers to the problems facing them. The lecture introduces the basic concepts of Confucian and Daoist thought, comparing the essentially positivist approach of Confucianism to the radically skeptical system put forth by the Daoists.
Though Confucianism and Daoism are the most enduring schools of thought to emerge from the Warring States period, other ideas also emerge, none as important as those of the Legalists, whose approach to social and political order is fundamentally at odds with both Confucian and Daoist ideas. A low-ranking official named Liu Bang rises to power and founds a dynasty that will last years and see the solidifying of the imperial state and the blending of Confucian, Daoist, and Legalist elements to construct an ideological framework for official Confucianism.
Internal weaknesses eventually shatter the Han government. The subsequent division of the empire into three large states ushers in one of the most romantic periods in Chinese history, drawn on to this day by Chinese literature for its stories of great heroes, clever strategists, and military leaders. While the Han dynasty slides toward collapse, a new religion with its origins in India begins to make its presence felt. This lecture examines both Buddhism's basic concepts and the origins of its path into China. As a result of 4th-century migrations in Central Asia, Proto-Turkic invaders sweep into northern China.
Over time, their assimilation leads to a China distinguished by two dramatically different cultures north and south of the Yangzi River. In the 6th century, a general of mixed ancestry reunifies China's two cultures under the Sui dynasty; its succession by the Tang ushers in one of China's greatest dynasties, which will last until the beginning of the 10th century.
This lecture includes a look at a controversial figure in a national history largely authored by men: Wu Zetian, who deposes her nephew to become the only woman to occupy China's imperial throne in her own name. The Tang survives a rebellion to endure for another century and a half, a period that includes the rise of a new intellectual movement of Confucian thinkers whose ideas set the stage for enormous cultural and intellectual changes in the 11th century. A corrupt Tang dynasty eventually falls, and the Song dynasty that emerges responds to its political challenges through institutional and social innovations that fundamentally reshape the later imperial state.
The expansion of the imperial civil service examination system by the early Song dynasty makes that system the most significant mechanism for identifying men of talent for the imperial bureaucracy and launches a great age of respect for intellect and ideas. Landscape painting emerges to lead the rise of historical art discourse, reflecting new ideas about the place of man in the universe and, ultimately, the new philosophical trend of Daoxue, which becomes the imperial state's official version of Confucianism.
The collapse of the Tang at the beginning of the 10th century leads to a period of division and conflict and creates opportunities for the rise of non-Chinese powers along the northern frontier. After the loss of north China in , the Song court moves to the city of Hangzhou, surviving for another years and presiding over a period of tremendous expansion of technological growth, and domestic and international trade.